Brief history, structure, roles and responsibilities
Control of narcotics in Thailand has
begun for centuries since opium was the only known narcotic drug. The
first regulation concerning opium was proclaimed in 1360, according
to Criminal Code. The Code allowed authorized officers to imprison traffickers
as well as opium addicts until they were able to overcome addiction.
The Morphine and Cocaine Act B.E. 2456 (1913) prohibited
importation into kingdom and international trade of some morphine and
cocaine. Thailand also joined the International Opium Convention held
in Hague, Netherlands in 1914. The objective of the Convention was to
suppress the use of the harmful narcotics. As a result, the Narcotics
Act B.E. 2465 (1922) was promulgated to assure proper control of importation,
sale, possession, production and consumption of narcotics.
In 1934, declaration of Cannabis Act
to protect the public from being addicted to cannabis. And In 1939,
The Kratom Act was promulgated to limit used and propagation of Kratom
trees (Mitragyna speciosa ).
In June 1959, Thai government decided
to abolish smoking and selling of opium after that had legally allowed
since the reign of King Rama IV (around in 1857). Then, came the emerging
time for new opium substitute, "heroin". Heroin rapidly spread
among certain groups of population. The Narcotics Act B.E.2465 (1922)
was then revised and raised the maximum penalty to death sentence. In
addition, the Ministry of Public Health worked in close cooperation
with The Ministry of Interior on the establishment of a sanatorium for
treatment of the increasing amount of drug addicts in the north of Bangkok.
The problem of narcotics were not declined
and has been considered as a global problem. Modern communication and
transportation facilitates smuggling and illegal distribution of harmful
narcotics all over the world. Since Thailand became a member of the
single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961, the government has put
every effort in cooperation with international organizations on combating
illicit trafficking of narcotics. The Narcotics Act B.E. 2522 (1979)
was consequently promulgated in order to govern enforcement, licensing,
registration, importation, exportation, manufacture, purchase and exemption
of narcotics drugs.
During the last decade, abuse of psychotropic substances has become
a serious problem. Thai government began to deposit instruments of accession
on joining the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances Act
1971. As a result, the psychotropic substances Act B.E. 2518 (1975)
was promulgated to control the problem.
In order to face the problem of abuse
of volatile substances such as thinners and lacquers which widely spread
among young people, the Ministry of Public Health, therefore, promulgated
the Emergency Decree on Prevention Against Abuse of Volatile Substances
B.E. 2533 (1990)
1.2 Organization structure
The tasks of this division
are: control and monitor the production, distribution, import, export
and possession of narcotics and psychotropic substances which are legally
used for medical and scientific purposes according to Narcotics Act
and Psychotropic Substances Act. The Division fulfilled these tasks
by issuing licenses and monitoring the licensees. It also provides and
distributes narcotics and psychotropic substances to meet the local
demand for medical uses. Another duty of this division is to safe guard
the confiscated narcotics and destroy them when the case is decided
2. Laws and regulation concern
2.1 The Psychotropic Substances
ACT 1975 (B.E. 2518)
This act was enacted to control
the psychotropic substances. The Act was directly resulted from the
Convention of Psychptropic Substances 1971 of which Thailand is a member.
Several regulations have been issued under the Act concerning enforcement,
licensing, registration, importation, exportation, manufacturer, purchase
of psychotropic substances.
2.2 The Narcotics Act 1979 (B.E. 2522)
The Act provides control
measures on the production, import, export, possession of narcotics.
Controlled substances include drug listed in Schedule I, II, III, IV
of Single Convention on Narcotic Drug 1961 and some of controlled substances
in Convention against illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances of 1988.
Emergency Decree on Prevention Against Abuse Using of Volatile Substances
1990 (B.E 2533)
The Emergency Decree
was promulgated with the objective to prevent the use of volatile substances
such as thinners, lacquers, and synthetic or organic adhesive. It was
found that a grate number of young people were addicted to volatile
substances. Control and treatment measures as well as penalties are
specified for all types of offences.
3. Pre-marketing Control
It's main responsibility is
to issue licenses for production, sale, import, export and possession
of psychotropic substances and narcotics specified in the Narcotics
Act and Psychotropic Substances Act. It also issues registration certificates
and permit of advertisement of psychotropic substances and narcotics
which are used for medical and scientific purposes. This section is
responsible for arranging the meetings of subcommittee and committee
concerning the regulations of psychotropic substances, narcotics and
volatile substances to consider the adjustment the laws concerned.
Another duty of this section is to collect and submit data and information
required by international conventions since Thailand is a member of
the Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic
Substances 1971 and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic
in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1988.
The main responsibility
of this section is to control and supervise the production, import,
export or possession of narcotics and the psychotropic substances. It
also investigates cases concerning the illegal supply of those substances,
cooperates with concerning agencies to suppress the ones who offend
This section is responsible
for planning and budgeting for the whole division. Then monitors and
assesses that all activities are performed according to plans. It is
also responsible for personnel development such as send personnel to
attend lectures and training on pharmacy and narcotics. The other areas
of responsibility are to develop the Division's information technology
system, to study trends about the sale and abuse of uncontrolled drug
in order to find ways to prevent these kind of activities.
6. The Narcotics
It's main responsibility
is to supply psychotropic substances and narcotics to be utilized for
medical, scientific and industrial purposes. It also distributes psychotropic
substances and narcotics to government and licensed privates hospitals
throughout the country.
7. The confiscated Drugs Control Section
This section is responsible
for taking confiscated drugs from scientific detection officials and
safeguards them in the FDA's warehouse pending the lawsuits. It also
responsible for the disposes or uses of these drugs when the cases are
decided in the courts of first sentence.